McGuckin, B.T., D.A. Haner, and R.T. Menzies (1997). Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer: optical characterization of the calibration panels. Applied Optics. 36 (27), 20 September.
The reflectance properties of an engineering model (EM) of the Spectralon panel intended for use within an on-board calibrator (OBC) on the NASA multiangle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) instrument have been fully characterized with regard to panel uniformity and isotropy in response to three incident laser wavelengths of 442, 632.8 and 859.9 nm. A regional variation in the relative bidirectional reflectance factor (RBRF) across the surface of the EM panel, which contributes to spatial nonuniformity at the +or-2% level, has been measured at all three laser wavelengths. Further, a reflectance anisotropy has been identified. The mechanism causing these departures from the ideal Lambertian surface may originate in the sanding of the Spectralon surface in the final stage of preparation, This supposition is corroborated by measurements made on a pressed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) panel in which a greatly reduced anisotropy in panel RBRF is measured. The EM panel RBRF exhibits a deviation from Lambertian characteristics as an off-specular peak in the forward scattering direction. A common crossover point at an angle of reflection of ~37 degrees at which the BRF is constant within +or-0.4% for an illumination angle range of theta i=30 degrees -60 degrees is observed at all three wavelengths. Two Spectralon protoflight panels that were fabricated after the EM was studied were also the subject of a uniformity study over part of the area of the Spectralon panels at the 442-nm wavelength. The analysis indicated that the panel uniformity satisfies the +or-0.5% criterion, which indicates improved panel preparation. However, the off-specular peak in the forward scattering direction was essentially unchanged, with the crossover point at ~37
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